The Al Khalifa imposed their authority over Bahrain and retained their jurisdiction over Zubarah. [249] Sharia law is the main source of Qatari legislation according to Qatar's Constitution. [182][183] Qatar was suspended from the coalition in Yemen due to the 2017 Qatar diplomatic crisis. To the southeast lies the Khor al Adaid ("Inland Sea"), an area of rolling sand dunes surrounding an inlet of the Persian Gulf. Among these, Indians are the largest community, numbering 650,000 in 2017,[19] followed by 350,000 Nepalis, 280,000 Bangladeshis, 145,000 Sri Lankans, and 125,000 Pakistanis. Its capital is Doha, Qatar is mentioned in 13th-century Muslim scholar Yaqut al-Hamawi's book, Mu'jam Al-Buldan, which alludes to the Qataris' fine striped woven cloaks and their skills in improvement and finishing of spears. The average level of elevation in Qatar decreases the further north you travel. [220] Qatar is the leading exporter of liquefied natural gas. [253][254][255], Arabic is the official language of Qatar, with Qatari Arabic the local dialect. In fact, only 400,000 of the nation's total population, which is more than 2,500,000, identify as ethnic … [19], The combined number of South Asians (from the countries of the Indian subcontinent including Sri Lanka) by themselves represent over 1.5 million people (60%) of Qatar's population. Qatar, independent emirate on the west coast of the Persian Gulf. Historical. So far the government, the primary transport developer, has done well in terms of keeping up with the demand for new transportation options. If you are interested in Qatar and the geography of Asia our large laminated map of Asia might be just what you need. It is Qatar's fastest growing city, with over 80% of the nation's population living in Doha or its surrounding suburbs, and it is the political and economic center of the country. Qatar's media was classified as "not free" in the 2014 Freedom of the Press report by Freedom House. Apart from the capital city Doha, most other towns are oil-company compounds. [45] Under the Sasanid reign, many of the inhabitants in Eastern Arabia were introduced to Christianity following the eastward dispersal of the religion by Mesopotamian Christians. Its population stood at 1.8 million in 2012. The crime? [97], In June 2013, Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani became the Emir of Qatar after his father handed over power in a televised speech. Qatar's winning bid for the 2022 World Cup was greeted enthusiastically in the Persian Gulf region as it was the first time a country in the Middle East had been selected to host the tournament. [177] In 2012, it was estimated that Qatar would invest over $120 billion in the energy sector in the next ten years. [252] Active churches include the Mar Thoma Church, Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, the Roman Catholic Church of Our Lady of the Rosary and the Anglican Church of the Epiphany. [99], Qatar participated in the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen against the Houthis and forces loyal to former President Ali Abdullah Saleh, who was deposed in the 2011 Arab Spring uprisings.[100]. Poetry later fell out of favor after Qatar began reaping the profits from oil exports in the mid-20th century and many Qataris abandoned their Bedouin traditions in favor of more urban lifestyles. The larger, diurnal species, like the Arabian oryx, gazelle and ibex, have been hunted down to extinction. [191] Additional changes to labour laws include a provision guaranteeing that all workers' salaries are paid directly into their bank accounts and new restrictions on working outdoors in the hottest hours during the summer. It’s perfect for either a couple hours’ escape from your transit or casual browsing, dining or people watching. [243], Islam is Qatar's predominant religion and is the official status although not the only religion practiced in the country. [250], The Christian population is composed almost entirely of foreigners. The 2010 census recorded the total population at 1,699,435. [2] Legislative elections have been postponed until at least 2019. His mission to Bahrain and Qatar and the resulting peace treaty were milestones because they implicitly recognised the distinctness of Qatar from Bahrain and explicitly acknowledged the position of Mohammed bin Thani. Situated on a shallow bay indented about 3 miles (5 km), Doha has long been a locally important port. They won all seven of their matches, conceding only a single goal throughout the tournament. 1915' [1000] (1155/1782), p. 1001. In the north, Qatar is surrounded by the Persian Gulf, as is the eastern shore. Now, the country has a high standard of living for its legal citizens. Qatar's culture is similar to other countries in Eastern Arabia, being significantly influenced by Islam. In addition, two Canadian institutions, the College of the North Atlantic (headquarters in Newfoundland and Labrador) and the University of Calgary, have inaugurated campuses in Doha. [96] Qatar is pursuing an Afghan peace deal and in January 2012 the Afghan Taliban said they were setting up a political office in Qatar to facilitate talks. [44] Qatar played a role in the commercial activity of the Sasanids, contributing at least two commodities: precious pearls and purple dye. The bombing was carried out by Omar Ahmed Abdullah Ali, an Egyptian resident in Qatar who had suspected ties to Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula. [76] This eventually led Al Thani to rebel against the Ottomans, whom he believed were seeking to usurp control of the peninsula. [42] Among the findings were 3,000,000 crushed snail shells and Kassite potsherds. Qatar’s wild mammals are hard to spot, most of them being small and nocturnal. [143] According to leaked documents published in The New York Times, Qatar's record of counter-terrorism efforts was the "worst in the region". Exchange of Notes constituting an Agreement between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Kuwait regarding relations between the United ... Exchange of Notes concerning the Termination of Special Treaty Relations ... Northern Ireland and the State of Qatar, 3 September 1971, A Treaty of Friendship and an Exchange of Notes, each entered into on 3 September 1971. [52], Qatar was described as a famous horse and camel breeding centre during the Umayyad period. [208] A book recently produced by the Ministry of Environment documents the lizards known or believed to occur in Qatar, based on surveys conducted by an international team of scientists and other collaborators. As a country in West Asia, Qatar is one of seven nations that comprise the Arabian Peninsula. [2][106][107] The constitution was overwhelmingly approved in a referendum, with almost 98% in favour.[25][26]. [306] The Council directs and controls education for all ages from the pre-school level through the university level, including the "Education for a New Era" initiative which was established to try to position Qatar as a leader in education reform. [131][132] Qatari officials have also indicated a willingness to allow alcohol in "fan zones" at the 2022 FIFA World Cup. The Museum of Islamic Art, opened in 2008, is regarded as one of the best museums in the region. Qatar is a country that is considered small. Qatari-Ottoman relations, however, soon stagnated, and in 1882 they suffered further setbacks when the Ottomans refused to aid Al Thani in his expedition of Abu Dhabi-occupied Khawr al Udayd. OPEC quotas on crude oil production, the lower price for oil, and the generally unpromising outlook on international markets reduced oil earnings. Mass-transit options, such as a Doha metro, light-rail system and more extensive bus networks, are also under development to ease road congestion. President Mohamed Morsi via diplomatic support and the state-owned Al Jazeera network until he was overthrown by a military coup d'état in July 2013 following mass protests against his rule. Having a mobile phone", "Religious law, prison for "blasphemy", severe sexual inequalilty: Qatar's human rights review", "What are the worst countries in the world to be gay? He resigned as kaymakam and stopped paying taxes in August 1892. [63] Having retained a negligible military presence in the area, the Ottomans were expelled by the Bani Khalid tribe in 1670. Qatari law does not permit the establishment of political bodies or trade unions. Al Jazeera initially launched in 1996 as an Arabic news and current affairs satellite TV channel of the same name, but has since expanded into a global network of several speciality TV channels known collectively as the Al Jazeera Media Network. [109] A Consultative Assembly has limited legislative authority to draft and approve laws, but the Emir has final say on all matters. [23] Qatar is a World Bank high-income economy, backed by the world's third-largest natural gas reserves and oil reserves. With a fast-expanding population and substantial economic growth over the past decade, a reliable and extensive transportation network is becoming increasingly necessary within Qatar. The taxes would be implemented on goods that harm the human body – for example, fast food, tobacco products, and soft drinks. [175] Qatar has recently signed defense pacts with the United States and United Kingdom, as well as with France earlier in 1994. The Al Khalifa were effectively returned to power thereafter. Press media has undergone expansion in recent years. The unemployment rate in June 2013 was 0.1%. Several senior members of Qatar's ruling Al Thani family are noted collectors of Islamic and contemporary art. [50], In 628, Muhammad sent a Muslim envoy to a ruler in Eastern Arabia named Munzir ibn Sawa Al Tamimi and requested that he and his subjects accept Islam. [214] Corporate law mandates that Qatari nationals must hold 51% of any venture in the Emirate. This was done in order to facilitate peace negotiations and with the support of other countries including the United States and Afghanistan. Luxembourg came a distant second with nearly $80,000 and Singapore third with per capita income of about $61,000. Notable among these include the Darfur Agreement. Suggestions in September 2017 by the presidents of both the United States and Afghanistan have reportedly led to protests from senior officials of the American State Department. In March, Mehmed imprisoned Jassim's brother and 13 prominent Qatari tribal leaders on the Ottoman corvette Merrikh as punishment for his insubordination. Qatar's defense expenditures accounted for approximately 4.2% of gross national product in 1993, and 1.5% of gross domestic product in 2010, the most recent year available in the SIPRI statistical database. [219] The economic growth of Qatar has been almost exclusively based on its petroleum and natural gas industries, which began in 1940. [216] It relies heavily on foreign labor to grow its economy, to the extent that migrant workers compose 86% of the population and 94% of the workforce. [106], In July 2019, UN ambassadors of 37 countries, including Qatar, Bahrain and Saudi Arabia, have signed a joint letter to the UNHRC defending China's treatment of Uyghurs and other Muslim ethnic minorities. Based on this census, which includes only the residents in cities, the total population in 1892 was 9,830. The shining jewel of Qatar, Doha is a multicultural city, home to most of the country's population as well as expatriate communities from a range of origins. [144][138][150] David Cohen, the Under Secretary for terrorism and financial intelligence at the U.S. Treasury, said that Qatar is a "permissive jurisdiction for terrorist financing. In 2014, it replaced the former Doha International Airport as Qatar's principal airport. The National Vision pledges to develop sustainable alternatives to oil-based energy to preserve the local and global environment. 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